Part 5: Particular Fields of Application: Public Sector Ethics, Relational Ethics, Animal Ethics, Moral Psychology, Evolutionary Ethics, Descriptive Ethics, and Conquering Life Ninja Club Coaching Ethics

Public Sector Ethics

Public sector ethics is a set of principles that guide public officials in their service to their constituents, including their decision making on behalf of their constituents.

Fundamental to the concept of public sector ethics is the notion that decisions and actions are based on what best serves the public’s interests, as opposed to the official’s personal interests (including financial interests) or self-serving political interests (see for example, Institute for Local Government, n.d.).

Relational Ethics

Relational ethics are related to an ethics of care (Gilligan, 2009, p.62–63).

They are used in qualitative research, especially ethnography and autoethnography.

Researchers who employ relational ethics value and respect the connection between themselves and the people they study, and “…between researchers and the communities in which they live and work.” (Ellis, 2007, p. 4).

Relational ethics also help researchers understand difficult issues such as conducting research on intimate others that have died and developing friendships with their participants (Ellis, 1986; Ellis, 1995).

Relational ethics in close personal relationships form a central concept of contextual therapy.

Animal Ethics

Animal ethics is a term used in academia to describe human-animal relationships and how animals ought to be treated.

The subject matter includes:

  • Animal rights
  • Animal welfare
  • Animal law
  • Speciesism
  • Animal cognition
  • Wildlife conservation
  • The moral status of nonhuman animals
  • The concept of nonhuman personhood
  • Human exceptionalism
  • The history of animal use
  • Theories of justice

Moral Psychology

Moral psychology is a field of study that began as an issue in philosophy and that is now properly considered part of the discipline of psychology.

Some use the term “moral psychology” relatively narrowly to refer to the study of moral development (see for example Lapsley, 2006).

However, others tend to use the term more broadly to include any topics at the intersection of ethics and psychology (and philosophy of mind) (Doris and Stich, 2008).

Such topics are ones that involve the mind and are relevant to moral issues.

Some of the main topics of the field are moral responsibility, moral development, moral character (especially as related to virtue ethics), altruism, psychological egoism, moral luck, and moral disagreement (Doris and Stich, 2008).

Evolutionary Ethics

Evolutionary ethics concerns approaches to ethics (morality) based on the role of evolution in shaping human psychology and behaviour.

Such approaches may be based in scientific fields such as evolutionary psychology or sociobiology, with a focus on understanding and explaining observed ethical preferences and choices (Schroeder, 2013).

Descriptive Ethics

Descriptive ethics is on the less philosophical end of the spectrum since it seeks to gather particular information about how people live and draw general conclusions based on observed patterns.

Abstract and theoretical questions that are more clearly philosophical—such as, “Is ethical knowledge possible?”—are not central to descriptive ethics.

Descriptive ethics offers a value-free approach to ethics, which defines it as a social science rather than a humanity.

Its examination of ethics doesn’t start with a preconceived theory but rather investigates observations of actual choices made by moral agents in practice.

Some philosophers rely on descriptive ethics and choices made and unchallenged by a society or culture to derive categories, which typically vary by context.

This can lead to situational ethics and situated ethics. These philosophers often view aesthetics, etiquette, and arbitration as more fundamental, percolating “bottom up” to imply the existence of, rather than explicitly prescribe, theories of value or of conduct.

The study of descriptive ethics may include examinations of the following:

  • Ethical codes applied by various groups. Some consider aesthetics itself the basis of ethics—and a personal moral core developed through art and storytelling as very influential in one’s later ethical choices.
  • Informal theories of etiquette that tend to be less rigorous and more situational. Some consider etiquette a simple negative ethics, i.e., where can one evade an uncomfortable truth without doing wrong? One notable advocate of this view is Judith Martin (“Miss Manners”). According to this view, ethics is more a summary of common sense social decisions.
  • Practices in arbitration and law, e.g., the claim that ethics itself is a matter of balancing “right versus right”, i.e., putting priorities on two things that are both right, but that must be traded off carefully in each situation.
  • Observed choices made by ordinary people, without expert aid or advice, who vote, buy, and decide what is worth valuing. This is a major concern of sociology, political science, and economics (Gunarto, 2003).

Conquering Life Ninja Club Coaching Ethics

Our fundamental ethos at the heart of our organisation is: TO EMPOWER AND LIBERATE

What is very important for us as coaches and all our trainees to understand and remember is that:

  • We are not here to control these adolescents.
  • We will not tell them what to think.
  • We will not tell them what to do.
  • We will not tell them how to behave.
  • We are here to educate them and give them clarity, truth and skills.

Adolescence is a critical time for laying a strong and resilient psychological and emotional foundation for health and wellbeing into adulthood.

We as ‘Conquering Life Ninja Club’ coaches have the invaluable opportunity to help facilitate the transformation of a whole generation of confused, fearful and anxious children into a generation of confident, assertive, compassionate and wise thinkers and doers.

We believe that once children are aware of their powers and learn the skills to use them effectively as ninja warriors, they will be the best judges as to what to do, how to think and how to behave positively and constructively within society…

An individual must know him/herself truthfully, honestly and with clarity; she/he must be the master of all that is within, before conquering the world around him/her.

We are to facilitate their understanding of firstly themselves (mind and body), with degrees of clarity surpassing all current available education in all arenas (school, college, university…)

We do that by providing a safe, secure, friendly and supportive environment and appropriate guidance.

Our ambitions are to develop a new breed of heroes. One that aspires to all of our (sometimes seemingly long forgotten) best human virtues: honour, courage, compassion, respect, loyalty, honesty, prudence, grace, forgiveness, humility, authenticity, excellence, kindness, gratitude, patience, commitment, tenacity, tact, generosity, empathy, contentment, assertiveness, cooperation, adaptability and integrity.

HONOUR is respecting those over you and acting in a way that is deserving of respect from those under you. Honour is the reputation and alliance that you earn from those you serve and those who serve you.

COURAGE isn’t the absence of fear, it’s the strength to move forward in the face of fear. Perhaps the most vital virtue to develop. When we feel the fear and do it anyway we develop courage.

COMPASSION is the ability to step outside of yourself and perform an act of selflessness; this is the foundation of compassion. To be compassionate is to value others above yourself for the sole purpose of contributing to the greater good.

RESPECT is what you show to others as reflection of your self-respect. For this reason, respect is something you do for yourself. That doesn’t mean you have to agree with others, but you simply value yourself enough to give others respect.

LOYALTY is staying true to yourself and standing by someone else’s side when they face adversity is mastery of loyalty. Never giving up on someone, no matter how hard it gets, for as long as it takes, that is the true measure of any great relationship.

HONESTY is you being as good as your word. If your word isn’t worth anything, then you have lost a piece of your soul. Being honest is difficult, but it is the bedrock of character. A house is only as strong as its foundation.

PRUDENCE is the capacity to face reality squarely in the eye, without allowing emotion or ego to get in the way, and to do what is best for the team.

GRACE is giving something to someone who hasn’t earned it and doesn’t deserve it, and yet giving it anyway, thus inspiring them to aspire to deserve it.

FORGIVENESS is giving up our right to collect on a debt. “An eye for an eye will only make the whole world blind”, said Gandhi. When I no longer have the need for revenge, then I have forgiven.

HUMILITY is the leadership quality of taking the brunt of the blame when things go wrong and giving away the majority of the credit when things go well. The leader who practices humility will never ask anyone to do what they themselves cannot do. Humility is leading from a position of service.

AUTHENTICITY is being true to yourself despite it not being easy. Pulling off the mask that hides your flaws and living in the fullness of who you are creates a contagion that gives others the courage to do the same.

EXCELLENCE is striving is to be better than the day before and never giving in to the voice that says, “That’s good enough.” Instead, listening for the voice that says, “Now awesome!” Excellence has a price tag, and the price is practice, practice, practice.

KINDNESS is strength. A simple smile, a kind word or even an arm on a shoulder can change someone’s life for the better and thereby change the world… Kindness is your superpower.

GRATITUDE is another superpower that keeps you positive and energised. You can’t be resentful and grateful at the same time. To be truly grateful is to consider all the gifts you have been given and to understand that no matter what, there is always something for which to be grateful.

PATIENCE is the ultimate act of love, just ask anyone who has raised a two year old.

COMMITMENT is doing what you say you’re going to do without excuse. Suit up and show up every day and give your best effort.

TENACITY is the ability to stick it out and never give up, to keep going when things are tough and there is no end in sight. This is the only way to live a life of contentedness because regret only happens when we give up.

TACT is being honest but tactful. Remember there is another human being on the other end of your words. Strive to live by the golden rule: “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.”

GENEROSITY is how you impact the world. People won’t remember what you said or did, they will remember how you made them feel. Be generous with how you treat everyone, they will feel amazing and so will you.

EMPATHY is the ability to put aside your ego, step into someone else’s shoes and experience their emotions. When we do this, we create connection. The number one emotional need we all have is for connection.

CONTENTMENT is a mindset. It’s choosing not to look at lack but see the abundance that already exists. Dissatisfaction is the misconception that you need more than what you already have.

ASSERTIVENESS is unapologetically going after what you want in life. Being assertive is letting the world feel the full weight of who you are, living with passion, without being a jackass.

COOPERATION is the most important virtue for success. If you can’t play well with others you’re going to get kicked out of the sandbox. Learn to cooperate and you’ll be successful.

ADAPTABILITY is the ability to be flexible to change and gain the advantage in any situation. Things that aren’t adaptable break, things that aren’t adaptable don’t survive. Improvise, adapt and overcome.

is the solidarity of our virtues; it is the quality by which we live out our values and prioritise our principles. It is the culmination of character in action. To act with integrity is to be a good person.

The above virtues, in our opinion, hold the key to our salvation, not just of the individual but of entire nations, and by extension, all life on the planet!

As Conquering Life Ninja Club coaches, we must aspire to and have all of the aforementioned virtues, if we are to foster and promote them in these young and impressionable minds.

As coaches, we are charged with the fundamental task of nurturing these young souls, by being as crystal clear as signposts in this world of confusion.

We must strive in every moment of everyday, with every thought and in every action, to set an example for what we envisage for the world and want to foster in these children.

About Conquering Life Academy

A psychological and emotional training academy designed to equip children with all the necessary self insights and vital life skills to navigate through adolescence and grow into competent, well grounded and well adjusted thriving young adults.

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